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Today on “types of data manipulation”: the reference point

Another way to manipulate information is to show related but misleading dependencies instead of the dependencies the viewer is actually interested in. For example, consider a sales manager who has the following data (Table 1) to present to management. If the manager favors Seller 2 but realizes that their sales value is below average, they can present the seller's "achievements" by showing the number of units sold on a graph (as shown in the graph) instead of the value of sales. This can cause the viewer to be misinformed without realizing it.

Happy presenting

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